Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Sambucus canadensis ethanol extract in meristem cells of Allium sativum
From Firenze University Press Journal: Caryologia
Guadalupe Velázquez-Vázquez, Decanato de Ciencias Biológicas. Facultad de Biotecnología. Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla
Beatriz Pérez-Armendáriz, Decanato de Ciencias Biológicas. Facultad de Biotecnología. Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla
Verónica Rodríguez Soria, Decanato de Ciencias Biológicas. Facultad de Biotecnología. Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla
Anabella Handal-Silva, Departamento de Biología y Toxicología de la Reproducción. Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla
Luis Daniel Ortega, Decanato de Ciencias Biológicas. Facultad de Biotecnología. Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla
Medicinal plants are used by rural and urban populations in the treatment of numerous diseases (Chabán et al. 2019; Trap et al. 2020). In various parts of the world, they are the only source of medical care, mainly due to economic and geographical factors, customs and traditions (Marcotullio et al. 2018; Tedesco et al. 2017; Ullah et al. 2013). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 80% of the world’s population uses herbal remedies as primary health care. The use of plants to treat diseases is still based on empirical knowledge, although they have been considered low risk compared to other synthetic drugs (De Smet 2007; Monroy et al. 2005, Newman and Cragg 2016). The scientific information available for most medicinal plants is still insufficient to guarantee their safe and efficient use (Moore et al.2020; Pastori et al. 2013).
Various studies have indicated the importance of evaluating their safety (Ganjhu et al. 2015; Huang et al. 2015; Neira et al. 2018; Palatini and Komarnytsky 2019; Soliman 2010; Sousa et al. 2011, Vazirian et al. 2018) due to possible risks associated with their components, which may be potentially toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic (Abdelmigid 2013; Bratu et al. 2012; Prasansuklab et al. 2020). Among the medicinal plants with high curative potential is Sambucus canadensis (L.) Bolli. A native of Mexico belonging to the Adoxaceae family, it is commonly known as elderberry.
This species has been used medicinally in indigenous communities as a bactericide, anti-inflammatory, against flu, cough, dysentery, fever, as well as in uses related to rituals for pregnant women (Álvarez-Quiroz et al. 2017; Lee and Finn 2007; Sánchez-González et al. 2008; Wu et al. 2004). Its anti-microbial, antiviral, antioxidant and chemopreventive activities, among others (Sidor et al. 2014; Tedesco et al. 2017; Thole et al. 2006) have been associated with the components present in the species such as triter-penes, tannins and various types of flavonoids such as anthocyanins (Abdelmigid 2013; Ozgen 2010; Vujosevic et al. 2004), however, the presence of these compounds could also cause harmful effects such as nausea, vomit-ing and diarrhea, such as in the case of Sambucus nigra species, whose consumption in pregnant and lactating women, as well as in children and teenagers under 18 years of age, should be avoided (EMA/HMPC Europe-an Medicines Agency 2012).
Information on toxicology, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Sambucus canadensis leaves is limited (Knudsen and Kaack 2015; Lee and Finn 2007; Schmitzer et al. 2012). It is important therefore to carry out studies to evaluate chromosomal damage and alterations of the mitotic cycle. Accord-ing to Hister et al. (2017); Nefic et al. (2013); Pi n ho et al. (2010); Souza et al. (2010); Tedesco et al. (2015), the Allium sp. biomodelis a widely used, efficient, fast, low-cost method, with extrapolatable results since ani-mal and plant chromosomes have similar structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of Sambucus canadensis on meristem cells of Allium sativum.